Benjamin Franklin,in a speech to the Constitutional Convention, June 28, 1787.

Mr. President, The small Progress we have made after 4 or 5 Weeks close Attendance & continual Reasonings with each other, our different Sentiments on almost every Question, several of the last producing as many Noes as Ayes is methinks a melancholy Proof of the Imperfection of the Human understanding.

We indeed seem to feel our own Want of political Wisdom, since we have been running all about in search of it. We have gone back to ancient History for Models of Government, and examin’d the different Forms of those Republicks, which, having been originally form’d with the Seeds of their own Dissolution, now no longer exist. And we have view’d modern States all round Europe, but find none of their Constitutions suitable to our Circumstances.

In this Situation of this Assembly, groping, as it were, in the dark, to find Political Truth, and scarce able to distinguish it when presented to us, how has it happened, Sir, that we have not hitherto once thought of humbly applying to the Father of Lights to illuminate our Understandings.

In the Beginning of the Contest with Britain, when we were sensible of Danger, we had daily Prayer in this Room for the “Divine Protection.” Our Prayers Sir were heard,—and they were graciously answered. All of us, who were engag’d in the Struggle, must have observ’d frequent Instances of a Superintending Providence in our Favour. To that Kind Providence we owe this happy Opportunity of Consulting in Peace on the Means of establishing our future national Felicity.

And have we now forgotten that powerful Friend—or do we imagine we no longer need its Assistance?

I have lived, Sir, a long time; and the longer I live the more convincing Proofs I see of this Truth, That God governs in the Affairs of Men!—And if a Sparrow cannot fall to the Ground without his Notice, is it probable that an Empire can rise without his Aid?—We have been assured, Sir, in the Sacred Writings, that “except the Lord build the House, they labour in vain that build it.” I firmly believe this;—and I also believe that without his concurring Aid we shall succeed in this political Building no better than the Builders of Babel: we shall be divided by our little partial local Interests, our Projects will be confounded and we ourselves shall become a Reproach and a Byeword down to future Ages. And what is worse, Mankind may hereafter, from this unfortunate Instance, despair of establishing Government by human Wisdom, and leave it to Chance, War & Conquest.

I therefore beg leave to move, That henceforth Prayers, imploring the Assistance of Heaven, and its Blessing on our Deliberations, be held in this Assembly every Morning before we proceed to Business; and that one or more of the Clergy of this City be requested to officiate in that Service.

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