Ministering To Children

Childhood Education in the Church, edited by Roy Zuck and Robert Clark (Moody, 1975, 500 pp., $7.95), is reviewed by Catherine Day, CHRISTIANITY TODAYstaff.

Most Sunday-school teacher preparation focuses on familiarizing the teachers with the materials they will be using. Childhood Education in the Church approaches preparation from the perspective that if you first understand the child’s emotional, physical, and mental development, you can more effectively prepare the material and present it. Leading Christian educators, seminary professors, Christian-education directors, and Sunday-school curriculum writers, have contributed twenty-nine articles that provide a balance of Christian educational philosophy (although Piaget and Ginott have had some influence), childhood development, theological conceptualization of children, and teaching methodology, as well as administrative guides for various programs. Sound thinking and preparation has produced a functional textbook for the Christian-education programs of all churches.

The book displays a fine balance between the theoretical and practical aspects of education. Sound educational principles are presented in clear and simple terms (but not simplistically) so that each Sunday-school teacher, whether an engineer, accountant, or sales clerk by profession, can have some grasp of children’s development and capabilities at various age levels. This is something that has all too often been ignored in deference to “knowing the material.”

The book is divided into seven sections. The first deals with the challenge of teaching children. Donald Joy, associate professor of Christian education at Asbury Seminary, sets the tone for the whole book with a thought-provoking essay on “Why Teach Children.” He sets forth the scriptural reasoning and responsibility for education, as well as recognizing the historical and sociological patterns set. He takes his standard from such verses as Matthew 12:48–53, Ephesians 4:25, and Luke 12:48.

The second section deals with the development of children from birth through sixth grade. V. Gilbert Beers, the president of Creative Design and author of children’s books, and Elsiebeth McDaniel, editor of pre-primary and primary lessons for Scripture Press, are perhaps the best known contributors to this section. But all the contributors are well qualified. They discuss the physical, mental, and social characteristics and development of the various age groups. This is the kind of information that the student of education gets in his most basic classes, and yet it is material that few Sunday-school teachers are taught.

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Possibly the most helpful section is the third, which deals with the child’s ability to grasp theological concepts and the degree to which a particular concept is understood at a specific age level. V. Gilbert Beers has drawn up tables to show what doctrinal concepts the various age levels can grasp, listing the statements the child might make to express his perception of topics such as God, Jesus, the Bible, home, Sunday school and church, and angels.

Two principles that are understood from the outset of the book function most importantly in this section. (1) There is no such thing as the perfectly average child who fits into each category set for his age group. Each child develops at his own rate; the descriptions offered are merely guidelines. (2) A child is not a little adult to whom the same things are taught, only in smaller doses. He has his own reasoning, needs, and abilities.

The last sections fall under the general category of methodology. Part four provides how-to information in basic areas of evangelism, storytelling, creative activities, visual aids, music worship, and stewardship. Part five offers program suggestions and tells of organizational structure aids within church agencies other than Sunday school, such as clubs, Bible schools, camps, and child-care programs. The most significant contribution in this section is that in which co-editor Robert Clark discusses leadership and the use of materials. Taking Dwight Eisenhower’s explanation that “leadership is the ability to get a person to do what you want him to do, when you want it done, in a way you want it done, because he wants to do it,” Clark suggests means for achieving this end, especially as they relate to the development of the leader’s character. His cataloging of organizational methods include training classes, worker seminars, and apprenticeship, as well as basic job descriptions.

Part six delves into the more specialized skills of working with exceptional children: gifted, retarded and handicapped. While much of this material offers nothing new in the field, to those unfamiliar with the special problems and needs of this group it should be very helpful.

The last section moves away from the areas that are generally understood to be in the direct domain of the congregation to consider briefly the home and the Christian elementary school.

This book presents some of the most complete and yet concise material available on the whole topic of childhood education. The bibliographies at the end of each chapter are useful guides to further information. Many churches are questioning the effectiveness of their Sunday schools and their teacher preparation. This book can improve the teachers’ understanding of their pupils and provide some innovative methodology, thereby offering new life to the Sunday school.

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Where The Wall Falls

Freedom Under Siege—The Impact of Organized Religion on Your Liberty and Your Pocketbook, by Madalyn Murray O’Hair (Tarcher, 1974, 278 pp., $8.95), is reviewed by John Wagner, attorney, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

That incorrigible scourge of Christianity in our day—the self-professed atheist who has blasted everything from praying in schools to Bible-quoting from the moon—has lashed out again. This time she attempts to document the infiltration of religion into all facets of tax-supported public life.

Filled with historical data, cases in point, and statistics, the book extends from colonial history to current loopholes for church-connected giving. It falls short of being a mighty blast at religion, although I am sure that the author, who is a lawyer and an ex-Presbyterian, intended it to be just that. Neither is it a rapier thrust, for the book lacks literary style and wit. It is clearly written and put together in an orderly way. But Madalyn O’Hair is clearly not George Bernard Shaw nor H. L. Mencken. She clearly is, however, an anti-supernaturalist, and she resents any kind of connection between organized religion and the established social order framed by law. This is to say that she takes the First Amendment (that Congress “shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof …”) very strictly. She is for absolute separation.

Her book makes interesting, even fascinating reading. It shows the multiplicity of ways in which governments—federal, state and local—help religious organizations by laws that either favor them financially or let them speak their message through tax-supported institutions, often treading on the toes of non-adherents in the process. After a review of colonial debate over church-state relations and the eventual adoption of the Constitution, she discusses the influence the churches have had on education and moral questions—prayer in public schools, parochaid, censorship of books, and such current controversies as abortion and birth control. While the Roman Catholic Church comes in for a large share of her wrath, Protestants are by no means exempt.

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The history and culture of America have deep roots in the Judaeo-Christian tradition. O’Hair deplores the fact that religious moralists have often succeeded in laying down the law for everyone. But it seems to me that this is inevitable so long as practicing Jews and Christians are elected to legislative bodies. One would hardly expect them to vote for legal positions contradictory of their own ethical ideals.

The third section of the book deals with the church as “big business.” The author goes into the tax-free status of church property and income, the large investments of denominations and para-church organizations, and the tax breaks created in their favor by the intricacies of the internal revenue code with regard to benevolent giving.

Did you know that some churches own hotels and business buildings donated by businesses that they then lease back to the businesses for their continued use, thereby giving the business donors sizable tax breaks, and creating fixed assets and income for the churches? O’Hair does, and she apparently has devoted innumerable days to investigating these matters.

She cites also the numerous hospitals, day-care centers, retirement homes, and housing developments owned and operated by churches or church-related entities but financed by taxpayers. Whether this is good or bad depends on your feelings about the scope of the First Amendment. But in any case, she shows that public tax money in great gobs goes to church enterprises like these.

Does it infringe on religious freedom if the astronauts quote Genesis from outer space? I doubt it. But when Roman Catholic or Protestant leaders try to obtain public tax money to support a denominational school system, then that is quite another question. These are touchy matters with which the courts and legislatures must continue to deal, and about which Christians must prayerfully think out their position. The constitutional principle of church-state can mean many things in many situations. O’Hair does not come up with all the right answers, but her book does start us thinking about the implications of it all.

Preaching: Reliable, Relevant

Crisis in the Pulpit, by Chevis F. Horne (Baker, 1975, 144 pp., $4.95), Preaching For Today, by Clyde E. Fant (Harper & Row, 1975, 196 pp., $8.95), The Living and Active Word: One Way to Preach From the Bible Today, by O. C. Edwards, Jr. (Seabury, 1975, 178 pp., $7.95), and Bonhoeffer: Worldly Preaching, by Clyde E. Fant (Nelson, 1975, 180 pp., $3.50 pb), are reviewed by C. D. Hansen, pastor, First Church of the Nazarene, Lowell, Indiana.

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Two words being talked about by churchmen of every persuasion these days are renewal and relevance. Everyone seems to have his own idea of what renewal is and what is relevant to the desired renewal.

For preachers struggling with these questions, Crisis in the Pulpit and Preaching For Today provide an answer. They incisively examine renewal and relevance in the pulpit. All preachers should read them.

The more readable is Crisis in the Pulpit. If when he begins the book the reader doubts the centrality of biblical preaching in the worship service, he won’t when he has finished. Horne has been pastor of the First Baptist Church of Martinsville, Virginia, since 1948, and his experience backs up what he says. He writes in simple and direct language, skillfully presenting his material in such a way that the book is difficult to lay down. This is a fresh look at some very old problems confronting the preacher and his congregation. Horne is at home with the Bible and makes abundant use of it to expound his points. The redemption of mankind by Jesus Christ runs through the book like a scarlet thread.

Horne draws upon the great masters of preaching to bolster the truth he presents; among those whom he quotes are James S. Stewart, John Wesley, W. E. Sangster, Phillips Brooks, Helmut Thielicke, and Richard Baxter.

He insists that preaching must not be fragmentary but must be to the total man, using the total Bible: “history, law, poetry, prophets, gospels, letters, and apocalypses.” Holding that the Church is to be servant-oriented, he wants preaching, like Christ, not only to draw people into the Church but to send them back as servants into a sin-darkened world. He believes that renewal of the Church is possible only through a renewed pulpit and that this cannot occur if the message is reduced to the theoretical or abstract.

Closely akin to this work is Preaching For Today by Clyde E. Fant, pastor of the First Baptist Church in Richardson, Texas, co-editor of the thirteen-volume Twenty Centuries of Great Preaching (Word), and a former professor of preaching at Southwestern Baptist Seminary. The style of the book is sometimes a little difficult, but the subject matter is not. Once past the rather tedious, textbook-style first three chapters, the reader finds flow and rhythm.

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Both Horne and Fant examine the pulpit crisis. Fant traces the history of pulpit criticism from New Testament days to the twentieth century, speaking of “heated blasts” and “shelling of the pulpits.” Horne sees the crisis as being produced by four converging crises: “faith, the institutional church, authority, and communication.” In the end, dealing with the matter in separate ways, they come to the same conclusion: there is hope for the preached Word. Fant points out that God’s Word is never irrelevant even though the preacher’s preaching may be. Three of his chapters should be required reading for every preacher: “We Are Men Like Yourselves,” “Credibility and Charisma,” and “Impact, Communion, and Shock.”

Of special interest is his discussion of expertise, trustworthiness, and ignorance. He records a terse statement by Phillips Brooks that should be indelibly engraved on every minister’s mind: “In many respects an ignorant clergy, however pious it may be, is worse than none at all. The more an empty head glows and burns, the more hollow and thin and dry it grows.”

Fant has some unusual ideas on sermon preparation that might not grip all. For those tied to a written manuscript, his “oral manuscript” method might be a way of deliverance.

He makes a good point about focusing on the wrong things, such as “eloquent diction, precise enunciation, dramatic gestures, impressive facial expressions, resonant tone, even correct breathing.” One who does this may find that “by the time he is ready to speak, he is either paralyzed or galvanized.”

Both Fant and Horne want the preacher to be contemporary, but neither would endorse the type of contemporaneity advocated by O. C. Edwards, Jr., dean of Seabury-Western Seminary, an Episcopal school. He begins with the method of constructing sermons on a purportedly contemporary basis. Then in the second part of the book he gives examples of sermons prepared by the method detailed in the first part, basically a one-point sermon with very little reference to the Bible. The sermons deal mostly with secular matters, and an attempt is made to contemporize the Bible around such themes as politics and the price of meat.

The best setting for such a sermon is to get everyone comfortably settled at the parish house, Edwards tells us. Then with a cigarette or pastry and a cup of coffee one preaches formally for about ten to fifteen minutes. This is followed by two to three times as much time discussing the sermon.

Edwards does not believe in announcing a text; he thinks that most congregations have very little familiarity with biblical texts and that when the text is announced most of the audience is lost immediately. Perhaps this explains why he draws most of his ideas and illustrations from secular sources, including Playboy, rather than from the Word of God. There is a place in preaching for the use of outside materials. But to build the sermon primarily from sources other than the Bible is to defeat the purpose of making the Word living and active. Edwards’s method gives a strong clue to where the pulpit crisis began.

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Dietrich Bonhoeffer was a passionate advocate of church renewal and insisted upon relevance. But he believed in the prominence of preaching and felt every sermon should be an event. He insisted that nothing was more concrete than Christ’s voice speaking through the sermon.

In Fant’s other book, Bonhoeffer: Worldly Preaching, he enables the reader to take a new look at this great theologian. He includes Bonhoeffer’s lectures on preaching, never before translated into English. Bonhoeffer, (1906–45) has been a controversial figure among evangelicals. He has often been misquoted and misunderstood.

Headed for a brilliant academic career, young Bonhoeffer felt the call to the pastoral ministry. His father was disappointed at his son’s decision, but later wrote, “Now, seeing the Church in a crisis that I never thought would be possible, I see that what you have chosen was very right.”

The young theologian worked hard at preaching, believing that the renewal of the Church lay in this area. He believed that preaching must be steeped in the Word of God, for this was the authority needed to present the truth. Relevance for Bonhoeffer was not merely a matter of rehashing events of the day. Rather he identified it with the specific interests of God’s Word.

Of great interest is his lecture entitled “The Pastor and the Bible,” which deals with the way a pastor should view and study the Bible. Especially delightful and informative is the chapter “How Does the Sermon Begin?”

Fant has done a laudable job of assembling this material and putting it together in a style that is readable and direct. For critics of Bonhoeffer this volume may help to erase some erroneous and jaundiced views about him. One need not agree with all aspects of his theology to profit from reading his views on preaching. Indeed, if many of his views were taken to heart, we would not have the crisis in the pulpits that is so widely noted today.

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TSF Bulletin, widely recognized as one of the best evangelical theological journals, is merging with the heretofore irregularly appearing Themelios under the latter’s name and is to appear three times a year. The first joint issue is scheduled for this fall and is to be designated Themelios 1975/3. At only $2.50, an annual subscription is one of the best buys in scholarly writing. Order from IFES, 10 College Rd., Harrow, Middlesex, HA1, 1BE, England.

The Most Dangerous Game: A Biblical Expose of Occultism, by Don Basham and Dick Leggatt (Manna Christian Outreach [Greensburg, Pa.], 126 pp., $1.95 pb), The Adversary: The Christian Versus Demon Activity, by Mark Bubeck (Moody, 160 pp., $2.25 pb), The Devil You Say?: Perspectives on Demons and the Occult, by John Chalk et al. (Sweet, 159 pp., $2.95), Angels, Elect and Evil, by C. Fred Dickason (Moody, 238 pp., $2.95 pb), Satan: His Person, Work, Place, and Destiny, by F. C. Jennings (Loizeaux, 254 pp., $2.50 pb), The Real Satan: From Biblical Times to the Present, by James Kallas (Augsburg, 111 pp., $2.95 pb), The World of Unseen Spirits, by Bernard Schneider (BMH Books, 157 pp., $2.95), Satan: The Prince of Darkness, by Fredk. Tatford (Kregel, 118 pp., $1.95 pb), and A Manual on Exorcism, by H. A. Maxwell Whyte (Whitaker, 126 pp., $1.25 pb). These books share a basically evangelical and biblically centered approach. Moreover, they are sober rather than sensational. The Jennings and Tatford works, being reprints, do not refer to more recent manifestations, which has advantages. Dickason and Schneider also present the biblical data on the holy angels.

Call to Discipleship (Logos, 138 pp., $3.50 pb), and Disciple, by Juan Carlos Ortiz (Creation, 158 pp., $5.95). These two rather similar books deal with the experiences of the author, pastor of a Pentecostal church in Buenos Aires. They present controversial and provocative views of why and how a church is truly revived.

Key to the Bible: Volume I (Alba, 186 pp., $1.45 pb), Volume II (189 pp., $1.65 pb), and Volume III (206 pp., $1.75), by Wilfrid Harrington. Useful as an introductory survey along the lines of mainstream academic biblical criticism and as an example of where contemporary Catholicism stands. The author teaches in the supposedly conservative Catholic country of Ireland, but doesn’t believe that, e.g., Peter wrote either epistle bearing his name.

Vision and Betrayal in America, by John B. Anderson (Word, 130 pp., $4.95), Profile of a Christian Citizen, by C. Welton Gaddy (Broadman, 125 pp., $1.95), Politics Is a Way of Helping People, by Karl Hertz (Augsburg, 150 pp., $3.95 pb), and The Unraveling of America, by Stephen Mousma (Inter-Varsity, 228 pp., $4.95 pb). A congressman, a denominational executive, a seminary professor, and a college professor express similar convictions on the necessity for Christian political involvement, especially in the wake of Watergate. They present politics as one of many aspects of a Christian’s life and witness. The authors are, respectively, Evangelical Free, Baptist, Lutheran, and Calvinist, and both Republicans and Democrats are represented.

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Deuteronomy, by J. A. Thompson (InterVarsity, 320 pp., $7.95). Ninth and latest addition to the Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries, a series that we wholeheartedly recommend as the best currently in progress on the Old Testament.

The Dating Game, by Herbert Miles (Zondervan, 168 pp., $5.95, $2.95 pb), I Pledge You My Troth, by James Olthuis (Harper & Row, 148 pp., $7.95), The People You Live With, by O. Quentin Hyder (Revell, 192 pp., $4.95), and Your Troubled Children, by Elizabeth Skoglund (David C. Cook, 105 pp., $1.50 pb). Four evangelical treatments of man-woman-children relationships. Miles addresses numerous specific questions pertaining to the teenage dating and courtship years, with more emphasis on pre-marital relationships than the title implies. Olthuis offers a new perspective on the man-woman relationship, using the old word “troth” (look it up) as the vehicle; his book is a refreshing, biblical view of marriage, family, and friendship. Hyder’s book, a sequel to The Christian Handbook of Psychiatry, gives a psychiatrist’s approach to the whole spectrum of family problems. Skoglund gives good advice on parent-child relationships, drawing from her professional experience as a counselor.

A Reader in Political Theology, by Alistair Kee (Westminster, 171 pp., $2.95 pb). Excerpts from twenty-four writings of the past decade or so, representing the so-called theologies of hope, revolution, development, liberation, and black experience. Special reference to how these theologians relate Christianity to the need for leftward political change. Good overview of this perspective, but hardly a balanced presentation of various Christian stances.

A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, Volume I, by C. E. B. Cranfield (T. & T. Clark, 444 pp., £7). The International Critical Commentary, the most widely known English scholarly series, had its last previous addition in 1951 (I and II Kings). Now the series is being revived, both to cover some books previously omitted and to replace dated volumes. Cranfield, who with J. A. Emerton is now the general editor, rewrote the first half of the widely commended Sanday and Headlam volume (which first appeared in 1895). All theological libraries will need to acquire this series.

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First Corinthians, by Hans Conzelmann (Fortress, 322 pp., $19.95). A translation from a 1969 commentary by the prominent German scholar is the latest addition to the Hermeneia series.

Truths That Transform, by D. James Kennedy (Revell, 160 pp., $4.95). An attractively bound exposition of sixteen doctrinal themes related to salvation (e.g., predestination, assurance) by the pastor of Coral Ridge Presbyterian Church in Florida. Simply written and biblically based, from a moderately Calvinist stance. Wide margins for notes.

Matthew—Thy Kingdom Come, by John Walvoord (Moody, 260 pp., $5.95), The Gospel of John, Volume I, by James Montgomery Boice (Zondervan, 444 pp., $9.95), Letter of Joy, by Arnold Bittlinger (Bethany Fellowship, 124 pp., $2.45 pb), The New and Living Way, by George Turner (Bethany Fellowship, 240 pp., $3.50 pb), and Exploring Revelation, by John Phillips (Moody, 288 pp., $5.95). Five new commentaries on New Testament books, all by evangelicals. Walvoord, writing on Matthew, concentrates on Christ the King, seeking to show why Christ did not establish his kingdom at his first coming. Boice’s volume on John, the first of five on this Gospel, goes only through chapter four, giving an in-depth study, but in a style that will be appreciated by lay readers also. Bittlinger explores Phillipians in a contemporary style, emphasizing the theme that Paul, prisoner at the time, has written of joy. Turner’s book is an exposition of Hebrews, written especially for pastors, teachers, study groups, with an analytical outline, topical studies, and illustrative material. Phillips attempts to outline Revelation, expound it verse by verse, and relate modern events and trends to the prophecies.

Religious Reading (Consortium Press [821 15th St. NW, Washington, D. C. 20005], c. 250 pp., $9.95 pb). The first of what is intended to be an annual guide. Some 2,000 books published in 1973 and 1974 are grouped into forty-one categories (with a title, but no author, index). About a third of the titles have brief, non-evaluative summaries. Both popular and technical works are included. Some improvements should be made in future editions, but this is a good beginning. Librarians and booksellers should support the venture, and many individual readers will also find it well worth their while.

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A Layman’s Handbook of Christian Doctrine, by Herschel Hobbs (Broadman, 142 pp., $2.50 pb). A Baptist leader offers brief explanations of numerous biblical themes, from “adoption” through “doubt” and “patience” to “Zion.” Crime, Rape and Gin, by Bernard Crick (Prometheus, 96 pp., n.p.). A humanistic approach to the problems of violence, pornography and drug addiction. Crick advocates little or no state censorship and increased social persuasion and pressure. It is interesting to note arguments that are similar to those of Christians who, on other issues, oppose legislation to correct injustices because one “can’t legislate morality” and should only work to get “men’s hearts changed.”

Getting Straight About the Bible, by Horace Weaver (Abingdon, 151 pp., $3.95). An approach to four controversial topics: creation, inspiration and interpretation, prophecy, and extraterrestrial life. Caricatures evangelical views.

Beneficent Euthanasia, edited by Marvin Kohl (Prometheus, 266 pp., $10.95, $4.95 pb), Freedom to Die, by O. Ruth Russell (Human Sciences, 352 pp., $14.95), and Death by Decision, by Jerry Wilson (Westminster, 208 pp., $7.50). Three discussions of the legal, ethical, moral, and historical aspects of euthanasia. Kohl has collected a score of essays. They generally argue for “mercy killing,” which is called “beneficent euthanasia.” Russell also supports euthanasia, using humanist arguments and outlining practical steps such as voluntary euthanasia statutes. Wilson’s treatise reaches some of the same conclusions, but his arguments are more “God-centered.” Improving medical technology makes this controversial subject increasingly practical, and evangelical ethicists need to be prepared to participate in the debate.

The Christian Teacher and the Law, by Christopher Hall (Christian Legal Society [Box 2069, Oak Park, Ill. 60303], 40 pp., $2.50 pb). Guidelines for Christians who teach in public schools on how much visibility their faith can have. Interesting and timely.

An Analysis of the Greek New Testament, I, by Max Zerwick and Mary Grosvenor (Pontifical Biblical Institute [distributed by Loyola University Press, 3431 N. Ashland, Chicago, Ill 60657], 456 pp., about $7.50). Volume one (Matthew-Acts) of an extremely useful tool for the person who has studied only a little Greek or for the pastor who has forgotten most of the Greek he learned in seminary. Contains a glossary of grammatical terms and a table of verb forms. Purists may not approve, but novice Greek students will doubtless receive this work with enthusiasm.

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The Sexual Celibate, by Donald Goergen (Seabury, 266 pp., $8.95), Sons of Freedom, by Gini Andrews (Zondervan, 191 pp., $4.95), Secrets of Eden, by Jim Reynolds (Sweet, 191 pp., $2.45 pb), and Marriage, Sexuality and Celibacy: A Greek Orthodox Perspective, by Demetrios Constantelos (Light and Life [Box 26421, Minneapolis, Minn. 55426], 93 pp., $3.95). Four different perspectives on human sexuality. Goergen examines the celibate choice and its relation to human sexuality. Andrews addresses single men specifically, using a question-answer format in giving a woman’s perspective on questions confronting men. Reynolds’s book is essentially a guide to biblical teaching on the whole range of sexual behavior. Constantelos addresses his fellow Eastern Orthodox on that tradition’s historical approach.

A Challenge to Education, two volumes, edited by Walter Lang (Bible-Science Association [P.O. Box 1016, Caldwell, Idaho 83605], 155 pp. each, $2 each pb), Canyon of Canyons, by Clifford Burdick (Bible-Science, 78 pp., $1.95 pb), and Scientific Creationism, edited by Henry Morris (Creation-Life [Box 15666, San Diego, Calif. 92115], 277 pp., $3.95 pb). Numerous essays from proponents of creationism. The Lang volumes contain addresses on a variety of biological and geological topics. Burdick shows how the Grand Canyon fits into a six-day-creation, young-earth theory. Morris has edited a more systematic overview, especially for school teachers, to provide alternative comments to evolutionary texts.

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