1225 Thomas Aquinas born at Roccasecca

1230 Begins studies at Montecassino

1239 Continues studies at University of Naples

1244 Joins Dominicans; family protests decision by imprisoning him for a year

1245 Released by his family, Thomas goes to Paris to study with Albert the Great

1248 Accompanies Albert to newly founded Dominican school at Cologne

1250 Ordained a priest

1252 Returns to Paris; writes Contra impugnantes Dei cultum, a defense of mendicant orders

1256 Named master of theology at Paris

1259 Sent to Italy, where he would teach at Anagni, Orvieto, Rome, and Viterbo

c. 1260 Begins Summa contra Gentiles

c. 1265 Begins Summa Theologica

1269 Recalled to Paris to combat Averroist Siger of Brabant and other philosophers

1273 Suddenly stops work on Summa Theologica

1274 Dies at Fossanova, en route to Council of Lyons

1277 219 Thomistic propositions condemned at Paris

1278 Dominican General Chapter formally imposes his teachings on the order


c. 1200 Albert the Great born

1203 Dominic de Guzman preaches against heretical Cathars

1206 Francis of Assisi renounces wealth

1209 Albert, patriarch of Jerusalem, establishes ascetic rule for Carmelite order

1210 Pope Innocent III approves Friars Minor (Franciscans)

1212 Clare, a disciple of Francis, founds Poor Clares, a female Franciscan order

1215 Fourth Lateran Council models guidelines for monastic observance on Cistercian system

1216 Order of Preachers (Dominicans) approved

1220 Famed preacher Antony of Padua joins Franciscans

—Francis resigns leadership of his order

1221 Dominic dies

1226 Francis dies

1243 Bonaventure joins Franciscans

1245 Division between Conventuals and Spirituals roils Franciscan order

1247 Renegade Franciscans begin crusade against Jews in Vienne; Pope Innocent IV disowns them

1257 Bonaventure, elected Franciscan Minister General, seeks to heal order's internal divisions

1265 John Duns Scotus born

1274 Bonaventure dies


1200 University of Paris founded

1204 Influential Jewish scholar Maimonides dies

1209 Unrest in Oxford drives a group of scholars to settle in Cambridge

1210 Lecturing on Aristotle prohibited at Paris

1214 Oxford University given first privileges

1221 Emperor Frederick founds University of Padua

1224 University of Naples founded

1231 Parisian ban on teaching Aristotle lifted

1240 Works of Averroes become known

—Albert the Great and Roger Bacon begin work on Aristotle

1244 University of Rome founded

1247 University of Siena founded

1248 Albert founds faculty of theology at Cologne

—Bonaventure begins teaching at Paris

1252 Paris masters pick fight with mendicant orders

1258 Sorbonne founded as college for theology students within University of Paris

1263 William of Moerbeke, a Dominican, makes new translation of Aristotle

1270 Bishop of Paris condemns Latin Averroism

World Events

1202 Leonardo Fibonacci helps popularize superior Arabic math with publication of Liber Abaci1204 Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople, the Eastern Christian capital

1209 Thousands of Cathars (and Catholics) die at sack of Béziers, France

1212 Muslim forces lose major battle near Toledo, Spain

1215 King John of England seals Magna Carta; Innocent III annuls it

1217 Peter Waldo, founder of Waldensians (a proto-Protestant group in the Alps), dies

1220 Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor

1227 A Japanese monk returning from China introduces Zen Buddhism to Japan

1232 Inquisition set in motion by Frederick, then taken over by Pope Gregory IX

1240 Sultana Raziyya of Delhi, the first female Muslim ruler, killed by Turkish-backed Hindu troops